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Immutability of protobufs - Java vs C++

Protocol buffers (aka protobufs, protos) are a language-neutral, platform-neutral extensible mechanism for serializing structured data.

C++ const keyword

C++ does not need immutable protobufs - the const keyword is the reason. If an object is passed to a function as a const, only the methods which are marked as const can be accessed. See the below example.

class Boo {
  void set_val(int nval) { val = nval; }
  int get_val() const { return val; }

  int val;

void function(const Boo& b1, Boo& b2) {
  // The below statement produces compile a error for accessing non
  // const function of a const param. All the other statements are fine.

Why are protobufs in Java are immutable

Java has no equivalent of C++ const. If a function takes in a mutable object, just by looking at the function definition, one cannot say whether it is modifying the object or not. So in Java it is preferred to make objects immutable as much as possible. This is not a problem in C++ because of the const keyword.

For every proto message definition, the Java protobuf library creates an immutable protobuf class and a mutable builder class.


  • Intent to modify
    • C++ : protobuf is passed (not as a const)
    • Java : a protobuf builder object is passed
  • Intent to read
    • C++ : protobuf is passed as a const
    • Java : a protobuf object (immutable) is passed

Some Realization
I’m finding it extremely hard to search for the right topics and write something reasonably long and meaningful. Instead I decided to write about short and seemingly obvious things.

#c++ #java #tech